naar Vitamine C
Ascorbic acid protects lipids in human
plasma and low-density lipoprotein against oxidative damage
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115.
We exposed human blood plasma and low-density lipoprotein
(LDL) to many different oxidative challenges and followed the temporal
consumption of endogenous antioxidants in relation to the initiation of
oxidative damage. Under all types of oxidizing conditions, ascorbic acid
completely protects lipids in plasma and LDL against detectable peroxidative
damage as assessed by a specific and highly sensitive assay for lipid
peroxidation. Ascorbic acid proved to be superior to the other water-soluble
plasma antioxidants bilirubin, uric acid, and protein thiols as well as to the
lipoprotein-associated antioxidants alpha-tocopherol, ubiquinol-10, lycopene,
and beta-carotene. Although these antioxidants can lower the rate of detectable
lipid peroxidation, they are not able to prevent its initiation. Only ascorbic
acid is reactive enough to effectively intercept oxidants in the aqueous phase
before they can attack and cause detectable oxidative damage to lipids.
Orange Juice Ingestion and
Supplemental Vitamin C Are Equally Effective at Reducing Plasma Lipid Peroxidation in
Healthy Adult Women
Carol S. Johnston, PhD, FACN, Candice L. Dancho, MS and Gail M. Strong, MS
Department of Nutrition, Arizona State University East, Mesa, Arizona
Carol Johnston, Ph.D., Department of
Nutrition, Arizona State University East, 7001 E. Williams Field Rd, Mesa, AZ 85212.
Objective: To directly examine the contribution of vitamin C to the antioxidant potential
of fruits and vegetables, the antioxidant effect of orange juice consumption (8 and 16 fl.
oz.) was compared to the antioxidant effect of supplemental vitamin C (dosage equivalent
to that supplied by 8 fl. oz. of orange juice).
Methods: Subjects (n = 11; 28.6 2.1
years) received each treatment in a 3 x 3 randomized crossover design, and each two-week
treatment was preceded by a two-week washout. During the entire trial, subjects restricted
fruit and vegetable consumption to 3 servings per day except the vitamin C-rich foods
(items containing >20 mg/serving), which were restricted to 3 servings per week. A
fasting blood sample was collected at the end of each washout and each treatment period.
Results: Following washouts, plasma
vitamin C and lipid peroxidation (plasma TBARS) were similar by treatment group and
averaged 25.4 3.6 mol/L and 3.82 0.10 nmol/mL respectively. Plasma vitamin C
concentrations were similar following each treatment period, 37.9 8.1, 45.8 9.4, and
38.3 12.4 mol/L for the 8 and 16 fl. oz. orange juice treatments and the supplement
treatment, respectively. All intervention treatments reduced plasma TBARS as compared to
pretreatment values: -47% (p = 0.013), -40% (p = 0.083), and -46% (p = 0.015) for the 8
and 16 fl. oz. orange juice treatments and supplement treatment respectively.
Conclusions:These data indicate that the regular consumption of 8 fl.
oz. orange juice or supplemental vitamin C (70 mg/day) effectively reduced a marker of
lipid peroxidation in plasma.
Full report here
Fruits and vegetables in the
prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease
van't Veer P, Jansen MC, Klerk M, Kok FJ.
Division of Human Nutrition and
Epidemiology, Wageningen University, The Netherlands. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: We quantified the public
health benefit of fruits and vegetables on the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular
disease (CVD), using currently available human data. DESIGN: We reviewed over 250
observational studies on cancer and CVD. Relative risks (RRs) for high versus low intake
of fruits and vegetables were obtained. The preventable proportion of chronic diseases,
i.e. the per cent of cases attributable to low consumption of fruits and vegetables, was
estimated using three scenarios: best guess, optimistic (using stronger RRs) and
conservative (using weaker RRs and eliminating the contribution of smoking and/or
drinking). The preventable proportion was calculated for increasing average intake from
the current 250 g day(-1) to the recommended 400 g day(-1) among the general Dutch
RESULTS: It is estimated that in the
Netherlands cancer incidence could be reduced by 19% (12,000 cases annually, best guess),
ranging from 6% (conservative) to 28% (optimistic). Cardiovascular deaths could be reduced
by 16% (8000 deaths annually, best guess), ranging from 6% to 22%. Evidence is most
abundant for gastrointestinal cancers, followed by hormone-related cancers, but limited
for other sites and CVD.
CONCLUSIONS: Increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables carries a
large public health potential.
Population trials and biological mechanisms should eventually provide scientific proof of
their efficacy. The available evidence is sufficient to justify public health education
and promotion aimed at a substantial increase in the consumption of fruits and vegetables.
Bases to determine the dose of
vitamin C in pregnancy
Casanueva E, Angulo ME, Goidberg S, Pfeffer F,
Meza-Camacho C, Vadillo-Ortega F, Rothenberg SJ.
Instituto Nacional de Perinatologia, Mexico.
OBJECTIVE: Determine the dose of Vitamin C able to
maintain a leukocyte Vitamin C concentration of > or =18 microg/10(8) cells, in
pregnant women with 28 to 32 weeks of gestation, in order to compile a database to
estimate the daily recommended intake (DRI) during pregnancy. METHODOLOGY: Stage 1: acute
supplementation study. A group of 10 healthy women in late first and early second
trimester pregnancy were supplemented with 0 to 200 mg vitamin C/day during one week each.
Stage 2: a randomized double blind study (placebo vs. vitamin C [100 mg/d]) was carried
out with 52 women studied from week 20 to week 32 of pregnancy. Their plasma and leukocyte
vitamin C concentrations were measured every 4 weeks to evaluate the previously
established supplementation dose.
RESULTS: Stage 1: with the 100 mg/day dose, leukocyte
vitamin C saturation was reached without increasing urinary excretion.
Stage 2: leukocyte concentration of vitamin C decreased
throughout pregnancy in women receiving placebo, while supplemented women maintained their
concentrations > or =18 microg/10(8) cells.
CONCLUSION: A 100 mg/day
dose of vitamin C during the second half of pregnancy keeps leukocyte storage and could be
useful to establish the DRI of Vitamin C during pregnancy.
Effects of vitamin C on
intracoronary L-arginine dependent coronary vasodilatation in patients with stable angina.
Tousoulis D, Xenakis C, Tentolouris C,
Davies G, Antoniades C, Crake T, Stefanadis C.
Athens University Medical School, Athens,
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of
intravenous vitamin C administration on the vasomotor responses to intracoronary
L-arginine infusion in epicardial coronary arteries. METHODS: 28 patients with coronary
artery disease and stable angina were enrolled in the study. Eight patients received
intracoronary infusions of 150 micromol/min L-arginine before and after intravenous
infusion of vitamin C, 10 patients received intracoronary infusions of 150 micromol/min
L-arginine before and after intravenous infusion of normal saline, and 10 patients
received intracoronary normal saline before and after intravenous infusion of vitamin C.
The diameter of proximal and distal coronary artery segments was measured by quantitative
RESULTS: Infusion of L-arginine caused
significant dilatation of both proximal (4.87 (0.96)%, p < 0.01 v normal saline) and
distal (6.33 (1.38)%, p < 0.01 v normal saline) coronary segments. Co-infusion of
vitamin C and L-arginine dilated proximal coronary segments by 8.68 (1.40)% (p < 0.01 v
normal saline, p < 0.01 v L-arginine) and distal segments by 13.07 (2.15)% (p < 0.01
v normal saline, p < 0.01 v L-arginine). Intravenous infusion of vitamin C caused a
borderline increase in proximal and distal coronary segment diameters (1.93 (0.76)% and
2.09 (1.28)%, respectively, not significant).
CONCLUSIONS: L-arginine dependent
coronary segment vasodilatation was augmented by the antioxidant vitamin C in patients
with coronary artery disease.
Thus, vitamin C may have
beneficial effects on nitric oxide
bioavailability induced by L-arginine.
Effect of Five-Year
Supplementation of Vitamin C on Serum Vitamin C Concentration and Consumption of
Vegetables and Fruits in Middle-Aged Japanese: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Mi Kyung Kim, PhD, Shizuka Sasazuki, MD,
Satoshi Sasaki, MD, Shunji Okubo, MD, Masato Hayashi, MD and Shoichiro Tsugane, MD
Epidemiology & Biostatistics Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute East,
Chiba (M.K.K., S.S., S.S., S.T.), JAPAN
Hiraka General Hospital, Yokote (S.O., M.H.), JAPAN
Address reprint requests to: Shoichiro
Tsugane, M.D., Epidemiology and Biostatistics Division, National Cancer Center Research
Institute, 6-5-1 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa City, Chiba 277-8577, JAPAN. E-mail:
Objective: This study was aimed at
evaluating the effect of long-term vitamin C supplementation on serum and dietary vitamin
C and identifying the factors associated with change in serum concentration.
Methods: A total of 439 subjects with
atrophic gastritis initially participated in a randomized clinical trial using vitamin C
and -carotene to prevent gastric cancer. We originally randomized the participants into
four treatment groups using a 2x2 factorial design, whereby 0 or 15 mg/day -carotene and
50 or 500 mg/day vitamin C were administered in a double-blind manner. The -carotene
component was terminated early after a mean treatment duration of four months. Before and
upon early termination of -carotene supplementation, 134 subjects dropped out this
trial, while 120 and 124 subjects took the vitamin C supplement at either 50 mg or 500 mg
daily for five years.
Results: Changes in serum vitamin C were
significantly higher in the high-dose group (38.5% increase, 95% CI = 27.049.9) than
in the low-dose group (13.0% increase, 5.120.9) or in the dropout group (3.3%
increase, -2.18.6) after five-year supplementation. The serum vitamin C at baseline
was negatively associated with changes in serum vitamin C (p < 0.0001), while high-dose
(p < 0.0001) and low-dose (p < 0.05) supplementation and female gender (p <
0.001) were positively associated. Dietary intake of vitamin C in the supplementation
group was almost identical before and after five-year supplementation of vitamin C (2.31
mg/day decrease, 95% CI = -15.310.7), while a 17.7 mg/day decrease (95% CI =
-44.28.86) was observed in the drop-out group.
Conclusion: Five-year vitamin C supplementation induces a remarkable
increase in serum vitamin C concentration, and our intervention program appears to have no effect on dietary
vitamin C intake.
Plasma-Saturating Intakes of
Vitamin C Confer Maximal Antioxidant Protection to Plasma
Carol S. Johnston, PhD, FACN and Sarah K.
Department of Nutrition, Arizona State University East, Mesa, Arizona
Address reprint requests to: Carol
Johnston, PhD, Department of Nutrition, Arizona State University East, 7001 E. Williams
Field Rd, Mesa, AZ 85212. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Objective: Supplemental vitamin C has
been shown to reduce oxidative damage in vivo, yet the dose-response relationship between
vitamin C intake and antioxidant protection is not known. This report examined blood
indicators of oxidative stress in subjects consuming graded doses of vitamin C, from 75 to
Methods: Ten healthy, non-smoking men and
women (26.1 2.1 years) were recruited from a campus population. During the ten-week
study, subjects limited fruit and vegetable consumption (3 servings/day) and consumed a
multivitamin and mineral pill daily. Beginning at week 3, subjects ingested either a
vitamin C (n = 8) or placebo (n = 2) capsule, which were identical in appearance and
taste. The content of the vitamin C capsule increased every two weeks (from 250 mg at
weeks 34 to 500 mg, 1000 mg, and 2000 mg at weeks 56, 78, 910,
respectively). Fasting blood samples were collected at two-week intervals and analyzed for
vitamin C, total lipid hydroperoxides and Heinz bodies in packed erythrocytes incubated 24
hours at 37.
Results: Plasma vitamin C rose 55% in
vitamin C-supplemented subjects by the end of the ten-week treatment (p < 0.05), and
measures of oxidative stress decreased 60% to 90% (8.1 0.6 to 3.5 0.4 nmol/mL and
69.1 7.8% to 6.7 6.0% for total lipid hydroperoxides and Heinz bodies,
respectively). Significant decreases in markers of oxidative stress were noted at the 500
mg, 1000 mg and 2000 mg dosages versus placebo. Antioxidant protection was similar at the
1000 mg and 2000 mg dosage.
Conclusions: These data indicate that the antioxidant protection
afforded by short-term vitamin C supplementation is maximal at the 5001000 mg dosage
Intakes of Vitamin C, Vegetables
and Fruits: Which Schoolchildren Are at Risk?
Jeffrey S Hampl, PhD, RD, Christopher A.
Taylor and Carol S. Johnston, PhD, RD, FACN Graduate Program in Human Nutrition, Arizona
State University, Tempe, Arizona
Address reprint requests to: Jeffrey S
Hampl, PhD, RD, Graduate Program in Human Nutrition, Arizona State University, Box 872502,
Tempe, AZ 85287-2502
Objective: The purpose of this study was
to determine vitamin C intakes among American schoolchildren. We investigated the leading
sources of vitamin C in childrens diets, the leading vegetables and fruits consumed
by children and differences in dietary intake associated with vitamin C consumption.
Methods: Data from 1,350 7- to
12-year-old and 908 13- to 18-year-old schoolchildren were obtained from the
19941996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII). The children were
stratified by age and gender and then split into three vitamin C consumption groups based
upon two 24-hour recalls: low (0 to 30.0 mg), marginal (30.1 to 59.9 mg), and desirable
(>60.0 mg). Data were analyzed by tabulation and by ANOVA followed by post hoc
Scheffes test. Outcome measures included food groups and energy-adjusted intakes of
micro- and macronutrients.
Results: Among the 7- to 12-year-olds,
12% of boys and 13% of girls had mean vitamin C intakes that were less than 30 mg/day,
and, among 13- to 18-year-olds, 14% of boys and 20% of girls had low vitamin C intakes. In
addition to consuming significantly more vitamin C, children with desirable vitamin C
intakes also consumed significantly more (p <0.001) energy-adjusted folate and vitamin
B6; children with low vitamin C intakes tended to have significantly greater (p <0.001)
energy-adjusted intakes of fat and saturated fat. Children with desirable vitamin C
intakes consumed significantly more (p <0.006) high-vitamin C fruit juice, low-vitamin
C vegetables and whole milk. Children with low vitamin C intakes on average consumed two
daily servings of vegetables and fruits, of which less than of a serving was citrus, while
children with desirable vitamin C intakes consumed an average of one daily serving of
Conclusions: A considerable number of
children drastically under-consumed vitamin C and total vegetables and fruits. Overall,
children with desirable vitamin C intakes had healthier diets, including more milk and
vegetables, than did their peers with low vitamin C intakes. Health care professionals should continue to promote at
least five daily servings of vegetables and fruits and should advise parents that at least
one of these should be rich in vitamin C.
The Influence of Smoking on
Vitamin C Status During the Third Trimester of Pregnancy and on Vitamin C Levels in
Rosa M. Ortega, PhD, FACN, Ana M.
Lpez-Sobaler, PhD, M. Elena Quintas, PhD, Rosa M. Martnez, PhD and Pedro Andrs, PhD
Departamento de Nutricin (R.M.O., A.M.L-S., E.Q.), Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad
Complutense, Madrid SPAIN
Servicio de Anlisis Clnicos, Servicio de Obstetricia y Ginecologa (R.M.M.), Hospital
INSALUD, Cuenca SPAIN
Laboratorio de Tcnicas Instrumentales (P.A.), Facultad de Farmacia. Universidad
Complutense, Madrid SPAIN
Address reprint requests to: Rosa M.
Ortega, PhD, FACN, Departamento de Nutricin, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad
Complutense, 28040-Madrid SPAIN
Objective: The aim of the present
investigation was to determine the differences in vitamin C status of 57 Spanish women
smokers (S) and nonsmokers (N) in their third trimester of pregnancy, and the
concentrations of vitamin C in their milk.
Methods: Vitamin C intake during the
third trimester was determined by recording the consumption of foods over a 5-day period
(including a Sunday) and by registering vitamin C provided by dietary supplements. Vitamin
C levels in maternal serum during this stage of pregnancy and in transition (days 13 to 14
of lactation) and mature milk (day 40 of lactation) were determined colorimetrically.
Subjects also answered a questionnaire on their smoking habits during pregnancy.
Results: S subjects (n=16) showed a lower
intake of fruits, vegetables and vitamin C than did N subjects (n=41), though these
differences were not significant (17.1% of N subjects and 31.2% of S subjects took less
than 80 mg of vitamin C per day). Neither were any differences found between the two
groups in serum vitamin C levels. However, N subjects showed significantly greater vitamin
C levels in both transition and mature milk (431.6296.5 mol/L and 496.1325.6
mol/L, respectively for N subjects, and 233.7202.9 mol/L and 241.3293.1 mol/L
for S subjects). Further investigations are necessary to determine the clinical
consequences of these observations, though it is already known that maternal smoking
favors peroxidation events in newborn infants.
Conclusions: If the concentration of antioxidants (vitamin C) in
smokers breast milk is also lower, this might aggravate the peroxidation problems of
Micronutrient Deficiencies as
Predisposing Factors for Hypertension in Lacto-Vegetarian Indian Adults
Shashi A. Chiplonkar, PhD, Vaishali V.
Agte, PhD, Kirtan V. Tarwadi, MSc, Kishor M. Paknikar, PhD and Uma P. Diwate, MD
Agharkar Research Institute (S.A.C., V.V.A., K.V.T., K.M.P.), H.C., Pune, INDIA
Jehangir Medical Research Institute (U.P.D.), Pune, INDIA
Address reprint requests to: Dr. Shashi
A. Chiplonkar, Biometry & Nutrition Group, Agharkar Research Institute, G. G. Agarkar
Road, Pune, 411 004, INDIA. E-mail: email@example.com
Objective: With the increasing knowledge
about the antioxidant potential of many micronutrients such as zinc and vitamin C, their
roles in oxidative stress related health disorders have been postulated. This study
therefore investigated low micronutrient status as a predisposing factor for hypertension
in a traditionally lacto-vegetarian population like Indians.
Methods: Micronutrient profile was
assessed in 109 hypertensives with age-gender-socio-economic status matched 115 healthy
normotensives (3058 years of age). Food intakes were estimated through a
semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Nutrient intakes were then evaluated by
previous estimates of cooked foods from our laboratory. Systolic and diastolic blood
pressure (SBP, DBP), age, weight, height, waist and hip circumference, occupation,
physical activity, smoking habits were recorded. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for
hemoglobin, serum level of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL, ceruloplasmin,
plasma level of ascorbic acid, folic acid, retinol, erythrocyte glutathione reductase
activity coefficient (EGRAC) and erythrocyte membrane zinc.
Results: There were no significant
differences between protein, fat intakes of normal and hypertensive individuals, though
intakes of men were higher than those of women (p < 0.05). Intakes of omega-6 fatty
acids were higher (p = 0.08) and omega-3 fatty acids were lower in hypertensive men than
normotensive men (p = 0.04). Gender differences were also significant for micronutrient
intakes except vitamin C and -carotene. Intakes of potassium, copper, folic acid and
vitamin C were significantly lower in hypertensive individuals than in normotenisves. No
significant association was found between occupation or activity level and hypertension (p
> 0.2) in these subjects. Conditional logistic regression analysis indicated that
intakes of vitamin C, folic acid and zinc were associated with 18% (OR = 1.18, 95%
CI:1.08, 1.26), 51% (OR = 1.51, 95% CI 0.94, 2.1) higher odds for hypertension, and 3%
lower odds for hypertension (OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.92, 1.01), respectively. Mean plasma
vitamin C and folic acid were significantly higher (p < 0.01), and serum ceruloplasmin
and erythrocyte membrane zinc were marginally higher (p = 0.07) in normal than
hypertensive subjects. In multivariate linear regression analyses, plasma vitamin C, serum
ceruloplasmin and erythrocyte membrane zinc were negatively associated with SBP (p =
0.00001) and plasma vitamin C was negatively associated with DBP (p = 0.0001).
Conclusion: Low dietary intakes of vitamin C, folic acid and zinc
emerged as the possible risk factors for hypertension. Further, lower levels of plasma vitamin C, erythrocyte membrane
zinc and ceruloplasmin were found to be the putative intermediary biomarkers in
pathogenesis of hypertension.
Low intake of fruits, berries and
vegetables is associated with excess mortality in men: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease
Risk Factor (KIHD) Study.
Rissanen TH, Voutilainen S, Virtanen JK, Venho B,
Vanharanta M, Mursu J, Salonen JT.
Research Institute of Public Health, University of
Diets rich in fruits and vegetables have been of interest
because of their potential health benefits against chronic diseases such as cardiovascular
disease (CVD) and cancer. The aim of this work was to assess the association of the
dietary intake of a food group that includes fruits, berries and vegetables with
all-cause, CVD-related and non-CVD-related mortality. The subjects were Finnish men aged
42-60 y examined in 1984-1989 in the prospective Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk
Factor (KIHD) Study. Dietary intakes were assessed by 4-d food intake record during the
baseline phase of the KIHD Study. The risk of all-cause and non-CVD-related deaths was
studied in 2641 men and the risk of CVD-related death in 1950 men who had no history of
CVD at baseline. During a mean follow-up time of 12.8 y, cardiovascular as well as
noncardiovascular and all-cause mortality were lower among men with the highest
consumption of fruits, berries and vegetables. After adjustment for the major CVD risk
factors, the relative risk for men in the highest fifth of fruit, berry and vegetable
intake for all-cause death, CVD-related and non-CVD-related death was 0.66 [95% confidence
interval (CI) 0.50-0.88], 0.59 (0.33-1.06), and 0.68 (0.46-1.00), respectively, compared
with men in the lowest fifth. These data show that a high
fruit, berry and vegetable intake is associated with reduced risk of mortality in
middle-aged Finnish men. Consequently, the findings of this work indicate
that diets that are rich in plant-derived foods can promote longevity.
Full article here
Vitamin C enhances
chemosensitization of esophageal cancer cells in vitro.
Abdel-Latif MM, Raouf AA, Sabra K,
Kelleher D, Reynolds JV.
Department of Surgery, Trinity Centre for
Health Sciences, St James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. firstname.lastname@example.org
Chemotherapy is increasingly utilised in
multimodal protocols to try and improve outcomes. Cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) are
the mainstay of chemotherapeutic regimens, and an understanding of sensitivity and
resistance of esophageal cancer to these agents is of considerable clinical importance.
Antioxidants may modulate the response to chemotherapy, and in this study we examined the
effect of vitamin C on 5-Fu and cisplatin cytotoxicity and related pathways in the
esophageal cancer cell lines OE33 and SKGT-4. The antiproliferative effect of antitumor
agents was measured by the MTT assay, and the transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1
pathways were assessed by electrophoretic mobility gel shift assay. 5-Fu and cisplatin
demonstrated marked morphological changes and decreased cell proliferation. A combination
of vitamin C with 5-Fu or cisplatin exerted a significantly enhanced cytotoxic effect
compared to both drugs individually. Treatment of esophageal cancer cells with 5-Fu and
cisplatin induced NF-kappaB and AP-1 activation. Pretreatment with vitamin C inhibited
5-Fu or cisplatin induced NF-kappaB nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity, but
vitamin C had no effect on IkappaB-alpha protein levels. Vitamin C also inhibited 5-Fu-
and cisplatin-induced AP-1 activation.
Our data demonstrate that vitamin C enhances the antitumor activity
of 5-Fu and cisplatin, in
part by inhibiting translocation of NF-kappaB and AP-1, and sensitizes cancer cells to
drug-induced cell death. The data suggest that vitamin C supplementation may improve the
efficacy of chemotherapy for esophageal cancer.
Supplementation with flax oil and
vitamin C improves the outcome of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
Joshi K, Lad S, Kale M, Patwardhan B,
Mahadik SP, Patni B, Chaudhary A, Bhave S, Pandit A.
Interdisciplinary School of Health
Sciences (ISHS), University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune-411007, Maharashtra, India.
Considerable clinical and experimental
evidence now supports the idea that deficiencies or imbalances in certain highly
unsaturated fatty acids may contribute to a range of common developmental disorders
including Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Few intervention studies with
LCPUFA supplementation have reported inconsistent and marginal results. This pilot study
evaluates the effect of alpha linolenic acid (ALA)-rich nutritional supplementation in the
form of flax oil and antioxidant emulsion on blood fatty acids composition and behavior in
children with ADHD. Post-supplementation levels of RBC membrane fatty acids were
significantly higher than pretreatment levels as well as the levels in control.
There was significant improvement
in the symptoms of ADHD reflected by reduction in total hyperactivity scores of ADHD
children derived from ADHD rating scale.
Vitamin C and E supplements may prevent
hardening of the arteries in heart transplant patients - Laurie LaRusso, MS, ELS
Arteriosclerosis (hardening of the
arteries) occurs in 70% of heart transplant patients within three years after
transplantation. A process called oxidative stress is believed to contribute to this
accelerated development of arteriosclerosis among heart transplant patients. Researchers
know, however, that certain compounds in the body called antioxidants can protect cells
from oxidative stress. Researchers from Brigham and Women?s Hospital in Boston and the
Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University tested the hypothesis that antioxidants
could reduce oxidative stress, and subsequently inhibit the development of
arteriosclerosis in heart transplant patients. Their results, recently published in The
Lancet, suggest that taking the antioxidant vitamins C and E after heart transplant
surgery may help prevent transplant-induced arteriosclerosis.
Deze alg uit Japan en Korea helpt u snel uw gezondheid drastische te
verbeteren. De alg zorgt voor een flinke groei van uw darmflora waardoor u meer energie
krijgt en de voeding beter verteerd wordt. Verder bevat de alg een zeer hoge dosis
chlorophyl (bladgroen) die het lichaam helpt bij het afvoeren van metalen zoals kwik,
cadnium, lood etc die veel schade aan de hersenen kunnen veroorzaken. Daarnaast bevat de
alg een hoge kwaliteit plantaardig eiwit, aminozuren, mineralen en hoge dosis ijzer en
betacaroteen (provitamine A)
Wat de dokter u
niet vertelt - fonteine.com
Een kritische kijk op onze gezondheidszorg en haar kortzichtigheid. Kritische
artikelen over zuivel, brood, verhit eten maar ook veel nuttige tips voor mensen die
langer en gezonder willen leven. Uitleg over: wat is kefir ? wat is olieslurpen ? hoe
voorkom ik onstekingen in de darmen ? welke rol speelt voeding bij autisme en schizofrenie
? Is er meel zonder gluten ? Is zuivel gezond ? Welk gevaar schuilt er in verzuring van
het lichaam ? Hoe gezond is kokosolie ?